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Lower Limb Conditions

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Flat Foot (Pes Planus)

 

 

What is it?

 

Flat foot (overpronation, Pes Planus) is an inward roll particularly of the arch and heel of the foot. This occurs naturally as the foot contacts the ground typically causing varying foot pain, knee pain, hip pain, and lower back pain.

 

 

What are the symptoms?

 

There are many symptoms associated with Flat Foot including:

 

- Plantarfasciitis

- Shin Splints

- Achilles Tendonitis

- Medial Tibial Stress Syndrome

- Metatarsalgia

 

 

How can Orthotics help?

 

- Insoles (Functional Foot Orthotics) will reduce flat foot and improve foot biomechanics. The use of highly shock absorbing materials, particularly for sports orthotics, will minimilise the attenuation of shock loads to inflamed soft tissues.

 

 

 

High Arches (Pes Cavus)

 

 

What is it?

 

High arches are much less common than flat feet.  A high arched foot type is typically poor in absorbing shock forces and unable to adapt to the ground when the foot initially contacts the ground. It may also be much stiffer and may not be passively correctable to a more neutral position.

 

 

What are the symptoms?

 

Due to the lack of shock absorption and limitations to movement, stresses normally absorbed by the feet are transferred up the lower limb. Symptoms include:

 

- Foot pain, heel pain, ankle pain

- Plantarfasciitis

- Achilles Tendonitis

- Shin Splints

 

 

How can Orthotics help?

 

- Insoles (Functional Foot Orthotics) can improve foot biomechanics. The use of localised highly shock absorbing materials may be beneficial to alleviate pressure areas. 

- If the foot is less correctable, insoles (Total Contact Insoles) may be more appropriate to redistribute the higher pressures.

 

 

 

 

Plantar Fasciitis

 

 

What is it?

 

Plantar Fasciitis is thought to be caused by irritating the Plantar Fascia at the inner side of its attachment point to the heel. A common reason for this irritation may be Flat Foot as the tissue is over-stretched. However, people with poor foot biomechanics such as High Arches may be equally susceptible.

 

 

What are the symptoms?

 

These may include:

 

- Heel pain (underside) at its inner border where it joins the arch. This may be worse when placing the foot to the ground after rest, or first thing in the morning. 

- Heel tenderness at the inner border.

 

 

How can Orthotics help?

 

- Insoles (Functional Foot Orthotics) to realign the foot posture and improve foot biomechanics. The use of localised highly shock absorbing materials may be beneficial for sports orthotics.

 

 

 

Achilles Tendonitis

 

 

What is it?

 

An inflammatory condition of the Achilles tendon caused by over use, stretching, or muscle tightness.

 

 

What are the symptoms?

 

- Heel pain, ankle pain, calf pain or tightness.

- Inflammation of the Achilles tendon. 

- Symptoms tend to worsen after activity.

 

 

How can Orthotics help?

 

- Insoles (Functional Foot Orthotics) to realign the foot posture and improve foot biomechanics. The use of localised highly shock absorbing materials may be beneficial for sports orthotics.

Leg Length Discrepancy

 

 

What is it?

 

The human body is rarely symmetrical. A leg length discrepancy is typically due to a shortening of the bone(s) on one side commonly due to trauma or joint replacement. A scoliosis of the spine may also cause pelvic imbalance which causes a leg length discrepancy, however this is a much rarer cause.

 

 

What are the symptoms?

 

- The most common symptom is lower back pain resulting from the postural adjustment as a result of the leg length discrepancy. Hip pain and knee pain may be present, or feel achy.

 

 

How can Orthotics help?

 

- An insole with a heel elevator fitted within footwear. 

- An externally fitted shoe raise.

 

 

 

Hallux Limitus/Rigidus

 

 

What is it?

 

Hallux Limitus and Rigidus are both disorders which affect the joint at the base of the big toe. The joint progressively becomes stiffer with increasing toe pain/joint pain.

 

 

What are the symptoms?

 

- The reduced range of motion of the big toe results in pain when trying to progress over the foot during walking. The toe pain/joint pain typically worsens with colder weather.

 

 

How can Orthotics help?

 

- Insoles (Functional Foot Orthotics) with a specific adaption to improve any available joint range. 

Metatarsalgia

 

 

What is it?

 

Pain at the metatarsophalangeal joint heads (ball of the foot). There are many conditions which may influence Metatarsalgia but is typically due to poor foot biomechanics, or reduction in the fatty pad under the foot.

 

 

What are the symptoms?

 

- Foot pain at the ball of the foot which worsens with extended periods of weight bearing. 

 

 

How can Orthotics help?

 

- Insoles (Functional Foot Orthotics) to offload the ball of the foot and improve foot biomechanics. 

 

 

 

Shin Splints

 

 

What is it?

 

The cause of the most common form of Shin Splints, is Medial Tibial Compartment Syndrome. This is due to inflammation of the muscle tendon where it attaches to the thin layer of tissue which covers the tibia (shin bone). It is commonly referred to as an 'over use' injury, associated with Flat Foot.

 

 

What are the symptoms?

 

- Aching or tenderness along the front inner side of the lower leg. Symptoms will often increase with activity.

 

 

How can Orthotics help?

 

- Insoles (Functional Foot Orthotics) to control the overpronation (typical of Flat Foot) to improve lower limb biomechanics and reduce stress loading.

 

 

 

Congenital Talipes Equinovarus (CTEV)

 

 

What is it?

 

CTEV is characterised by a positional deformity of one or both feet as the baby develops when in the womb. It is caused due to an unbalanced tightness of the muscles and ligaments around the foot/ankle complex.

 

 

What are the symptoms?

 

- The foot will be pointed downwards with the sole turned inwards, and the foot rotated inward.

 

 

How can Orthotics help?

 

- Prescription footwear to hold the foot/feet in a corrected position and maintain this position as the foot develops (children).

- Footwear and/or custom insoles to accommodate the foot biomechanics and allow the individual to walk with maximally reduced stresses to the foot and ankle complex (usually adults).

• In very severe cases an Ankle Foot Orthosis (AFO) may be required to exert the required forces to control foot and ankle biomechanics (usually adults).

Drop Foot

 

 

What is it?

 

Drop foot is a simplified term given which covers a potentially complex problem. It can be caused by: dorsiflexor injuries, peripheral nerve injuries, CVA (stroke), and diabetes mellitus. 

 

 

What are the symptoms?

 

- There are a range of possible symptoms depending upon its severity. This mainly includes difficulty in lifting the foot, dragging the foot resulting in increased bending of the hip and knee, and weakness or numbness in the foot and surrounding tissues.

 

 

How can Orthotics help?

 

- An Ankle Foot Orthosis (AFO) will be required to control the drop foot to aid function and walking.

 

 

 

Allmed Healthcare Limited is a registered company within the Republic of Ireland.

Registration number - 464122

VAT registration number - IE 9646241F

Registered address - The Laurels, Cahermaculick, Shrule, County Mayo, Republic of Ireland. 

Allmed Healthcare Limited © 2008. All rights reserved.  

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Our custom-made products are registered with the Health Products Regulatory Authority in the Republic of Ireland.

 

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Tel: 093 33 825

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