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Long-term over use, multiple untreated injuries resulting in chronic (happening over a long period of time) tissue injury, poor blood supply and unhealthy tendon.
An inflammatory condition of the achilles tendon caused by over stretching or over use and tightness in the calf muscle and tendon itself.
The term ankle injury is a general or umbrella term which covers a variety of problems with a variety of causes. An ankle injury can range from a relatively simple ankle sprain to a complex ankle fracture. The causes are equally varied, from a simple twisting motion of the ankle to a severe trauma (a serious bodily wound caused by sudden physical injury).
Ankle sprains are injuries caused when an unnatural twisting movement is applied to the ankle which exerts higher than normal stretching forces to the ligaments, causing damage. Ligaments are special tissues which connect bones to each other and allow controlled movement between them.
The exact cause is not known but there is a strong genetic component to this disorder as 96% of sufferers share the same gene. It is a type of chronic (long term) inflammatory arthritis with an overactive immune response (the body’s response to the production of an antigen – a substance which produces antibodies to fight infections). It mainly affects the back but also the sacrum and pelvis area and it causes it to fuse and become rigid.
The ACL is one of four ligaments which together provide stability to the knee joint. ACL injury is typically associated with sporting activities such as football or rugby. The injury is cause typically when a twisting force is applied to the knee with the foot firmly in contact with the ground. Another common cause is a direct blow to the knee, usually on the outside of the knee e.g. in a rugby or football tackle.
AKP is a term used for a range of conditions; there are a number of possible causes. Common causes of AKP include: over pronation, patella maltracking or patella tendonitis. It may also be related to overuse e.g. in individuals who are keen on sports such as running.
As a result of trauma (a bodily injury or wound caused by an external force), inflammation, or tumours to the nerves which originate near the neck and shoulder. Stretching or tears of the nerves at their spinal origin (where they exit the spinal column) are most commonly seen during high speed vehicle accidents, particularly involving motorcyclists, falls from heights but also at birth, when the baby’s shoulder gets pulled away from the head.
Displacement (movement from its normal position) of the bones in the big toe (Hallux). The end (distal) bones move towards the smaller toes, and the closer bones (proximal) move in the opposite direction. This gives the appearance of a large bony growth on the side of the big toe. The cause is usually a biomechanical abnormality normally connected to over pronation of the foot. This prevents proper function of the big toe and, over time, results in the toe drifting across to the smaller toes creating the characteristic deformity. Poorly fitting shoes and high heels increase the likelihood of bunions forming.